Literature Review

 The literature review builds on the annotated bibliography. For the topic you chose for your annotated bibliography in Module 2, complete the following:

· Review your annotated bibliography.

· Define a problem statement that, in your opinion, would be useful and practical for you to investigate, based on the information presented in your annotated bibliography sources (and others if needed).

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· Organize your sources by sorting and classifying their findings in a meaningful way, always considering your original topic and problem.

· Write a literature review that would seem to offer the greatest potential for developing a good theoretical framework, using 7 to 10 references. All of these can be from your annotated bibliography, or you can use others in addition to those in your annotated bibliography.

· Develop the theoretical framework incorporating its basic functions as discussed in the text. 

· Generate a set of testable hypotheses based on your research question and the theoretical framework.

Report Guide

Your report must contain the sections outlined in the following guide. APA formatting standards must be followed throughout. The paper does not have to be lengthy; perhaps 750 to 1500 words. The introduction, research question, and hypothesis statement sections should be short and succinct. Most of the word count in your report will be in the literature review and theoretical framework sections.

Please read through all sections before proceeding to the next page, and refer back whenever necessary.


In this section, give a clear and concise statement of the problem. Briefly indicate why it is a problem, why you selected it, and why it is important to solve the problem. Use references as necessary to support your arguments.

Literature Review

This should be one of the longer sections in your report. It should summarize other work related to the problem you identified. It should identify important variables and document significant findings from earlier research.

Research Question

This should be a brief section with a clear and concise statement of your question. It should be clear to the reader that your question is a logical outgrowth of previous research as summarized in your literature review.

Theoretical Framework

This section applies to deductive research. It should be one of the longer sections in your report.


This brief section should contain a clear and concise statement of your hypothesis or hypotheses. The hypotheses should be a logical outgrowth of the theoretical framework.


Your report must contain a reference section that includes all sources in your paper. References must be in APA format.

Please proceed to the Example Outline section. 

Following is a suggested outline with a simple example:

  1. Introduction (setting up the discussion)
    1. The problem is … [people are       carrying onto airplanes more and more luggage, resulting in delays in       boarding and continued problems for flight attendants and gate agents]
    2. It’s important because … [the       airline industry is vital to the economy; no one likes delays; customers       must not abandon airline travel for other options]
    3. Solving it would result in …       [improved customer experience, resulting in better economic stability for       the airlines]
  2. Literature Review (what has already been ‘said’ in      this ‘conversation’)
    1. Previous research in this area       has shown …
    2. Ideas that keep coming up in       articles and other sources are … [the desire to carry on is driven by       several factors: security of personal valuables, convenience, baggage       charges, fear of lost luggage and wait time at arrival airport]
    3. Pros and cons [how these sources       support and/or contradict each other]
    4. Solutions explored so far include       … [size and number limits, baggage fees, improved tracking of luggage]
    5. Summary of lit review findings       (where we are now with this problem)
    6. Researchers seem to keep trying       to … [find solutions focused on limits to the plane’s carry-on capacity       and reducing fear of lost luggage]
  3. Research Question (what new question/solution will      be investigated)
    1. What would happen if … [customer       time were the focus of improvement, specifically, if promptness of       delivery to the carousel at arrival were improved? How important is it to       customers that their baggage arrive quickly at the pickup point?]
  4. Theoretical Framework (how the question arises logically      from the literature review)
    1. The dependent variable(s) is/are       … [delays in boarding, problems for flight attendants and gate agents,       others….]
    2. The independent variable(s)       is/are … [amount of carry-on baggage]
  5. Hypotheses (what testable speculations arise      from the identified independent variables)
    1. Customers who are confident that       their bags will arrive at the carousel for pick-up within 10 minutes of       exiting the plane will be more likely to check baggage rather than carry       it
    2. Customers who value quick pickup       of luggage upon arrival will be more likely to check baggage rather than       carry it. 


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