Please respond to the following:
- Identify a variable for scientific study that can be operationally defined.
- Create an operational definition for the variable.
- Identify what aspects of the variable would be observable and measurable.
2.—Observation, Hypothesis, Experimentation, and Verification.”
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Review the sections on “The Scientific Method” and “Proving a Theory.” Then respond to the following:
- Evaluate the claims below by using “the Scientific Method” and “Proving a Theory” steps.
- Identify one (1) claim which is ineffective or unsupportable and explain what specifically makes the claim ineffective or unsupportable.
- Explain what you think would have to be done to the claim in order to make it more effective or supportable.
- There is a phenomenon known as “spontaneous human combustion” in which most of the victim’s body, as well as the chair, in which the person was sitting, is found burned to ashes but the rest of the objects in the room are relatively unaffected. This phenomenon suggests that there is a new type of subatomic particle: a “pyroton” that interacts with cells and causes the victim to burst into flame. [Arnold, L. (1995). Ablaze! New York, NY: M. Evans.]
- Many reported ghost sightings involve reenactments of battles, deaths, or murders. This finding suggests that certain physical objects, such as stones, can record emotions and events like a video recorder. [Kneale, N. (1972) “The stone tape,” broadcast on BBC, December 25, 1972.]
- No one has ever actually been abducted by aliens. Instead, the experience of being abducted has been beamed into the minds of abductees by an intelligent being from somewhere in the universe that is symbiotically linked to life on this planet. [Rogo, D. S. (1990). Beyond reality. Wellingborough, UK: Aquarian Press.]
- People often know when others are staring at them. This shows that perception involves not only receiving light rays from an object but also projecting some sort of image onto the object. [Sheldrake, R. (1994). Seven experiments that could change the world: A do-it-yourself guide to revolutionary science. London, UK: Fourth Estate.]
- Dreams often seem as real as waking experiences because humans are composed of two bodies: a physical body and an astral body. When we dream, our astral body leaves the physical body and travels to the astral plane where the dream actually takes place. [Rampa, T. L. (1990). You forever (York Beach, ME: Samuel Weiser.]
- Food kept inside a structure with the shape of Cheops’s pyramid stays fresher longer than food kept outside the structure. The pyramid must serve as a lens that focuses some sort of cosmic energy onto the food. [Toth, M., Nielson, G. (1985). Pyramid power (Rochester, VT: Destiny Books.]
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