## Data, Data Everywhere!

Whether you like it or not, teaching will involve math; more specifically, statistics. Understanding how to analyze the data from test results will not only support learning, but inform your practice. Additionally, it will help you to provide clear feedback to both learners and stakeholders, if applicable. For this assignment, you use hypothetical test results from the summative assessment you created in Week 3 to help you learn how to analyze the testing data and know what to do with it.

Prepare

Prior to beginning work on this assignment,

· Read Chapters 6: Summative Assessment

· Read Chapter 9: Statistics for Educational Assessments

· Research for at least one scholarly source (Links to an external site.) that will support your analysis within your paper.

· See the Week 4 Data, Data Everywhere Assignment Template to guide your writing.

· Access the Week 4 Data Chart and Bar Graphs for test results and incorrect answer choices.

· Watch or read the following resources:

Reflect

Consider how data can help drive your instruction and better support learner needs.

Write

Complete the following:

· Determine the mean, median, and mode for the summative test results data only.

· Discuss the following making reference to the course text:

o Examine the Week 4 Data Chart and Bar Graphs related to summative assessment results.

§ What does the data tell you about how learners performed on the summative assessment? Explain. Refer to both the bar graph about test results and incorrect answer choices.

o Discuss how you would use this information to inform your instruction. Be specific.

§ For example, consider the incorrect answer choices data and link it to your summative assessment. For the questions that learners received the most incorrect answers, how might you reteach the concept and differentiate for those who already mastered it using flexible grouping? How might you give feedback to your learners based on the test results?

o Describe how the mean, median, and mode different? Similar?

§ Describe different situations in which each of the mean, the mode, or the median would be the most appropriate measure of central tendency, and relate it to your test results data. Which measure of central tendency would be most appropriate for your test results and why? How might you use this data when sharing results with the learners or parents of the learners?

o Describe the importance of understanding statistics in the education profession.

§ How might it improve your practice and support learning? Use evidence from the readings to support your response.

Writing and Formatting Expectations

Your Data, Data Everywhere! assignment

· Must two to three double-spaced pages in length including the graphs, computation of mean, median, and mode, and the reflection (does not include the title or reference page).

· Must include a separate title page with the following:

o Title of paper

o Student’s name

o Course name and number

o Instructor’s name

o Date submitted

For further assistance with the formatting and the title page, refer to APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.).

· Must include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper. For assistance on writing Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.) as well as Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.), refer to the Ashford Writing Center resources

· Must use proper syntax and mechanics. Your writing should display meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar.

· Must include at least one scholarly source found in the Ashford University Library in addition to the course text (Lefrançois). Exemplary assignments will include at least one more source in addition to the required scholarly source and the course text. Refer to Integrating Research (Links to an external site.) for assistance

o The Scholarly, Peer Reviewed, and Other Credible Sources (Links to an external site.) table offers additional guidance on appropriate source types. If you have questions about whether a specific source is appropriate for this assignment, please contact your instructor. Your instructor has the final say about the appropriateness of a specific source for a particular assignment.

· Must document any information used from sources in APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.) guide.

· Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.) resource in the Ashford Writing Center (Links to an external site.) for specifications.

## -Zero Grading Policy Debate

For this discussion, we engage in a debate that is a hot topic in our schools: the no-zero grading policy. Consider this scenario:

Steve submitted an assignment to you that was over a week late. He apologized for the late submission and told you that he had been dealing with some family issues that prevented him from getting his assignment submitted on time. Do you accept the assignment or still give him a zero for submitting it late?

Debate Grouping (by first letter of last name)

For this discussion, your assigned debate group is as follows:

• A-L:      Proponents of no-zero grading policy: Accept Steve’s work and grade it.
• M-Z:      Opponents of no-zero grading policy: Do not accept Steve’s work and give      him a zero.

Prepare

Prior to beginning work on this assignment,

Reflect

Consider if you have been given a zero before for a missing or late assignment or if you have given a zero to a student.

Write

Clearly state what your assigned position is for this debate.

Due Thursday, Day 3

Based on your assigned position, formulate a defense statement supported by the course text as well as the article you located that includes the following:

• Discuss      the theory behind the no-zero grading policy and its purpose.
• Provide      at least three reasons for your position, based on your research. You also      want to provide solid examples to support each reason.
• Properly      cite and reference your sources within your response using APA formatting (Links to an external site.).

Due by Saturday, Day 5

Respond to at least one of your peers who has been assigned a different position from you and has not received a response, and offer a rebuttal. Be sure to provide evidence from the readings or articles to support your opposition. Properly cite and reference your sources within your response using APA formatting (Links to an external site.).

Due by Monday, Day 7

Respond to your original post and provide the following:

• Your      own opinion of the no-zero grading policy based on the evidence from the      research and the responses of your classmates. How would you personally      handle Steve’s situation? Did your thinking change after reading your      classmates’ viewpoints? Why or why not?
• Using      the What Is a Growth Mindset? (Links      to an external site.) web page as a point of reference, how      might a no-zero grading policy help to promote a growth mindset for      learners. Explain, and if applicable, share your own experiences as well.

Respond to Peers (Due Monday, Day 7): Post replies to at least two peers by the close date of this discussion. Refer to your peers’ responses to their original post, and consider their viewpoints on the no-zero grading policy, extra credit, and acceptance of late assignments. Provide additional insights to their opinions.

Though two replies are the basic expectation, for deeper engagement and learning, you are encouraged to provide responses to any comments or questions others have given to you. Remember, continuing to engage with peers and the instructor will further the conversation and provide you with opportunities to demonstrate your content expertise, critical thinking, and real-world experiences with this topic.

## EARTH SCIENCE AND SOCIETY

essay should be addressing the questions/points below:

• Do we see an overall warming of the environment?
• Some theorists envisioned that we would see a more pronounced warming of minimum temperatures than maximum temperatures.  This might result in a reduced range of temperatures.  What trends does the data show?
• Many theories that look at global warming envisage more drought and less surplus water conditions for inland or continental locations.  Therefore, we might see some trends in precipitation amounts and the frequency of certain amounts of precipitation.  What do the trends show?
• In reference to actual evapotranspiration, surplus/deficit conditions and runoff/streamflow, what might we expect with a warming climate?
• Are there clear-cut answers in the trends that we see?
• What does that tell us about researching environmental issues like global warming?
• Are there other types of data or information that we need to look at to make a worthwhile analysis?  If so, what would they be?
• What are the implications of the results of this study?
• Can you link any of the climate trends to human agency?
• If the trends continue in their current direction, what are the potential implications for people living in the Wabash Watershed?

In short, we are looking at a specific geographic area, the Wabash Watershed.  We are looking at a specific time period, 1961-1990, utilizing raw, 5-year average, and 10-year average data, with respect to temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration, moisture surplus, moisture deficit, and surface runoff.  What does this data tell about this region over this time period, and what does it indicate about the future?  Does this tell us anything, positively or negatively about global warming theory?

## EARTH SCIENCE AND SOCIETY-ESSAY

Essay exam you are required to answer all five (5) of the questions. Although there is no set word limit for these essay questions, you will be graded on your knowledge of the material and the detail with which you write your answers. You should take care to cite your sources in APA format and provide full references in a Works Cited list.

1. Describe the paths of water through the hydrologic cycle.  Explain the processes and the energy gains and losses involved in the changes of water between its 3 states.  Operationally, we often most concerned with water does when it reaches the solid earth, both on the surface and in the sub-surface.  Explain the relationship between the saturated zone, the water table, a ground water well and the cone of depression, all within the sub-surface.
2. The food chain is a valuable concept in biogeography.  Give an example of a specific food chain, labeling the various levels of the food chain.  After looking at characteristics of food chains, explain how a geographer’s approach to the study of organisms might be different than biologist’s study of organisms; what would each try to emphasize more than the other?  What exactly is a biome?  Compare/contrast the concept of the biome with that of the zoogeographic region.   Compare/contrast the floral characteristics of 2 of the following biomes: Desert, Tundra, Midlatitude Grassland and Boreal Forest.
3. Theorize the difference in soil development in adjoining soils developed on forested, sloped area versus a grassed flat area.  What are the soil-forming factors? Explain the importance of the nature of the parent material to soil formation and type.  Then, cite at least 2 examples in which the influence of parent materials might be outweighed by other soil-forming factors.  Explain the “struggle” between the internal and external processes in shaping the Earth’s surface.  What are the different ways that the surface of the Earth is changed over time?
4. Describe the general sequence of events in continental drift since the time of 5 separate continents 450 million years ago.  What is the difference between the older continental drift theory by Wegener and the more recent plate tectonic theory?  Plate tectonics theory explains many seemingly unrelated phenomena.  Explain how the patterns of volcanoes and earthquakes related to plate tectonics.  Explain several pieces of evidence that combine to make the theory of plate tectonics the one that is generally accepted.
5. Provide a reason why some scientists believe the Pleistocene is over and a reason why other scientists believe we are now in an interglacial stage.  Some believe, for example, that since areas of pack ice and glacial ice still exist we are still in an ice age.  Others, on the other hand, seeing the rapid retreat of ice and snow pack in many areas, believes that this period of glaciation has ended.  So, using some other justifications, why do we see some differences in interpretation?  Is there some scientific data available that can support both sides view?  If so, provide it.  Why hasn’t this controversy been solved?  What impact does this division of views have on the public policies that are enacted by state, national and international bodies?

## Sus Week 5 .1

Resources: LEED™ Presentation; Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet

Read the LEED™ Microsoft® PowerPoint® Presentation to gain an understanding of the standard for green architecture.

Select the design of a home that uses standard architectural design or nonrenewable, inefficient energy guidelines.

Complete the Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet. Use the Energy Usage Calculation spreadsheet to complete the following:

• Determine the most efficient alternative energy design that would reduce the energy output through built-in calculation.
• Compare the energy usage in the original to the new design of the chosen home.

Redesign your chosen building to achieve a certified, silver, or gold level of LEED™certification.

Prepare a 10- to 12-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentation and include the following:

• Outline your idea for an alternative energy design that includes LEED™ architecture.
• Determine the most energy-efficient design or alternative energy for the home or building you have chosen.
• Describe how you might integrate sustainable energy sources and technologies into the design.
• Report the energy savings of the new design.
• Compare actions you might take in daily activities at home, when commuting, and to work to reduce the energy you consume.

Note: The Microsoft® Excel® spreadsheet should automatically calculate the electricity used in a typical house once you insert the number of hours. In addition, include the power usage of standard appliances such as a water heater, refrigerator, lighting, computer, television, dishwasher, and so on.

Present your Green LEED™ Architecture presentation.

• For Local Campus students, these are 10- to 15-minute oral presentations accompanied by Microsoft® PowerPoint® presentations.
• For Online and Directed Study students, these are Microsoft® PowerPoint®presentations with notes.

## Laboratory Exercise For Plate Tectonics Earthquakes Related To A Hypothetical Plate

Earthquakes Related to a Hypothetical Plate Boundary

Lesson Description

In this exercise we will plot 40 theoretical earthquake events at the juncture of two tectonic plates.Â  Students will then analyze the pattern of earthquake locations and compare these patterns to possible plate boundaries.

Learning Objectives

Student will learn to recognize the earthquake patterns associated with plate tectonic boundaries.

Step One

Plot the Earthquake Data found in Table #1 onto the Area Map (Figure #1). Feel free to duplicate this map to use as work copies. Place a dot or small circle on the map to represent each earthquake event (epicenter). Next to your earthquake location write the value of the depth at which that earthquake occurred (focus).

Step Two

Using the East-West Crossection (Figure #2) plot the surface location (epicenter) of each earthquake and then, based on the depth related to each earthquake event, plot the earthquake focus. On the crossection trace the top and bottom of the plate based on the earthquake focus depths.

Step Three

Answer the following questions.

Question #1: Does the pattern of deep and intermediate earthquakes indicate a tectonic plate boundary? If so, describe.

Question #2:Â  Is it possible to predict the thickness of this plate? How thick could this plate be? Does this thickness relate to a continental plate or oceanic plate? Oceanic plates are not 100 kilometers thick, discuss what then could account for the apparent thickness of this descending plate?

Question #3:Â  Can a second pattern be found that could be describing the other plate? Describe.

Figure #1:Â  Area Map

Figure #2: Â Crossection

## Plant’s Question

1. Plants are pretty tough. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain.

2. Plants are not tough at all. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Explain.

3. In class we discussed a Science Process Model. Draw and label this model and describe it’s shape.

4. Give an example of everyday activity showing the steps in the science process model.

5. The 4-H Children’s Gardens are made up of many theme gardens. What is a theme garden? Why are theme gardens important? What is a specific example of a theme garden?

6. One of our plant guests was Marigold. Why is this plant guest especially important to HRT 100 this year?

7. Where are the growing points on the above-ground part of a plant? Were are the growing points on the roots of plants? What is the name of these growing points?

8. Plant cells have a vacuole. How much of the cell does this structure take up? What is inside the vacuole? What happens to the vacuole when a plant freezes? When the temperature rises above freezing what happens to the vacuole?

9. How do plants usually get the nutrients they need for growth into the plant?

10. What is the difference between nutrient content and nutrient availability in a soil? Is one more important to a plant than the other? If so which is more important? Why?

11. You have a compacted soil in your garden area. Explain how the air space, water space and solid space will be different than it would be in a non-compacted soil. How do you expect this to affect plant growth?

12. What are the special tissues that are used to move water through a plant? What is unique about the cells in these tissues? Why is that unique characteristic important?

13. Plants can grow in some very unusual places. A friend show you a photo of a plant growing in a crack in the sidewalk in the downtown of a large city. What unique environmental conditions does this plant face?

14. A friend gives you some fruit that you have never seen before. You store it in the refrigerator for a couple of days and then take it out. Shortly after putting it on the counter it begins to turn brown. Based on this information, you think you can predict the climate this fruit is native to and why it turned brown so quickly. Explain.

15. Draw a graph of plant growth in relation to temperature for a plant that would be considered a cool-season plant. Show (label) the minimum, maximum and optimum temperatures for growth of this plant. Draw a second plant growth curve on this graph for a warm-season plant.

16. Not all of the light energy that falls on a leaf is converted to chemical energy via photosynthesis. What happens to the light energy not used in photosynthesis? Why is this important to a plant?

17. Explain why a plant looses water when its’ stomates open up to let carbon dioxide in. (think about the analogy I used in class).

18. Draw a plant, label the six main plant parts and list what each plant part does. There are some functions that are common to most (all) plant parts. What is this common function?

19. Plants have a process called photo-respiration. How does this work in a C3 plant? How does this work in a C4 plant?

20. What is a plant geek talking about when she/he asks what zone you live in?

21. I gave you flowers (well at least a photo of flowers) for Valentine’s Day and you were asked to give flowers to someone. Why and what does that have to do with this class?

22. What is a microclimate and how are microclimates important to the fruit industry in Michigan?

23. We took cuttings of some plants and are growing new plants from them. Answer these questions about these cuttings:

· What are the important tissues in the stem for vegetative propagation? Where are thy located? (Draw a picture)

· Why did we add auxin (a plant hormone) to the cuttings?

· Why did we put our cuttings on a mist bench?

· What changes happen to this piece of stem and in what order?

· How will this plant be the same and/or different than the plant the cutting came from?

## GEOLOGY 100, PROJECT 5 (Due Week 6)

Prior to answering the following questions make sure you read WEEK 5 Overview and Learning Resources. Also, you are expected to research outside sources from the course Webliography (under Content) and the Internet. Answers must be in APA-style paragraph form with proper APA citations. Graphics may be used to support your answers, but make sure you cite your source below the graphic.

1) Sketch or diagram “your interpretation” of the “Hydrologic Cycle”. What is the ultimate energy source for the water cycle to function on Earth? Label the major processes of the water cycle concept in the hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and geosphere. Use arrows to show the progression of water (H2O) through the cycle.

2) Define and describe the following geologic surface water terms and make sure you give a geologic location example for each term:

· drainage basin (watershed)

· drainage divide and continental divide

· stream erosion features: water falls, canyon (gorge), and V-shaped valley

· stream deposition features: stream load, alluvial material (alluvium), flood plain, and river delta.

3) Define “groundwater” and discuss its origin and role in the hydrologic cycle. Then define and describe the following groundwater terms:

· porosity vs. permeability

· saturated vs. unsaturated zones (also called zone of saturation and zone of aeration)

· water table

· aquifer (describe one in detail)

4) Visit the Virtual Caves website and then describe the geological formation of caves and caverns, with an example of each of the following cave types:

· solution caves

· sea caves

· erosional caves

· lava tube caves

5) View the video at Karst Topography: A Unique and Fragile Environment then discuss in a few paragraphs karst geology, including the origin of the term “karst”, the cave-forming rock types present, and the major karst surface and subsurface features. What is the major geologic hazard associated with karst regions? Choose one karst and/or cavern location in the USA (or other country) and discuss and describe the area, any unique subsurface life, and the human threats to this fragile environment.

RjS  Revised 01.02.19

## WELL TEST: ANALYSIS AND DESIGN

Its a Petroleum Engineering report.

You should use the related soft and complete all the requirements.

Well test was carried out on a well completed in an oil reservoir with the properties listed in table 1. The schedule consisted of a short clean-up period followed by a build-up period (first build up), constant rate production for approximately 24 hours and a 48 hour build up period (second build up).20

Files

1. Pressuredata:Pressuredata.txt

2. Rate data: Ratedata.txt
Import pressure data in excel and identify first build up, production and second build up.

Tasks 1, 2 and 3, must be carried out manually.

Task 1: Reservoir properties from first build up

1. For the first pressure build up data, construct an equivalent time curve 2. Calculate permeability, skin and initial pressure

Task 2: Reservoir properties from production data

1. For the sustained 24hour production data, construct a semilog graph of pressure vs time. 2. Calculate permeability, skin and well bore storage.

Task 3: Reservoir properties from second build up

1. Forthesecondbuilduptestdata,constructalog-loggraphofpressurevstimeandderivativeofpressure vs time.
UseexcelorKappatogeneratepressurederivativevstimecurveonlog-logscale.
2. Calculatepermeability,skinandwellborestoragebyBourdet’stypecurvematch
3. Identify boundary

Task 4: Reservoir properties from Kappa Saphir

1. Calculatereservoirpermeability,skinandwellborestorageforfirstbuildup,productionandsecondbuild- up
2. Identify boundary
3. Performsensitivityanalysisforvariationofskin,wellborestorageandpermeability

1

Report

The objective of this exercise is to compare the quality of the data generated through various methods: semilog analysis of pressure drawdown and buildup, type curve matching and through use of software. The report must not be longer than 8 pages. Calculations stated in tasks 1-3 must be included in appendices as Appendix A,B and C. Submit the semilog graphs for tasks 1 and 2 as a hard copy only. Suggested structure of report is:

1. Introduction and objectives: Discuss the types of well tests and their specific applicability, associated instrumentation (gauges). Steps need in preparation of a well test.
2. Methodology:Stagesinwelltest,typeofdatacollected,typeofanalyses.
3. Results(summary):Discusskeyresultsfromfirstbuildup,productionanddrawdownfrombothmanual and software computations. Cross compare the results and comment on the observations.

4.Uncertainty analysis: Identify the sources of error in the estimation of reservoir properties and address the uncertainities in manual computations. Comment on how improvement of model in Kappa, may affect the estimates of reservoircharacteristics.
5.Conclusions

## Assignment 10

Sources must be cited in APA format. Your response should be four (4) pages in length; refer to the “Assignment Format” page for specific format requirements.

carefully study and review the section titled, “Ecological Challenges Facing Humanity.” Skim through that and then focus on the topic of deforestation.

Relying solely on the material in your course and using your own words, write a short descriptive essay that defines and explains selected environmental impacts of deforestation. As you write, imagine you are talking to a friend who has no knowledge of this topic. In short, write the way you speak, using a conversational tone. Also, try to alternate short sentences and longer sentences to make your writing more readable.

Be sure to create a title and cite yourself as the author. For example:

Environmental Impacts of Deforestation
Jennifer Croft

Your essay should include five paragraphs, as follows:

• Paragraph 1 is your lead      paragraph. It will contain an overview of what you have to say about these      three topics: disruption of the carbon cycle, disruption of the hydrologic      (water) cycle, and the reduction of species diversity.
• Paragraphs 2, 3, and 4, are      your body paragraphs.
• Paragraph 2 should describe       how deforestation disrupts the carbon cycle.
• In paragraph 3, you’ll write       about how deforestation disrupts the hydrologic (water) cycle.
• In paragraph 4, you’ll explain       how deforestation is related to declining species diversity.