Biology short answers need done by

A few sentences/single paragraph for each item should be sufficient, in addition to including each item above its answers.


1. What are deuterostomes and protostomes, and how are these concepts useful in biology?   (Forget which opening comes first in development.   The concept is much more profound than that!)

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2. What are seeds and some advantages of seeds, compared to what predated them?

3. what are homologies and analogies?  What do they teach us about the history of life on earth?


4. In what respects have plants been necessary for animals to evolve?


5. what have been some causes of extinctions in the history of life on earth?  What5happens after mass extinction?


6. Locate “neoteny” and “heterochrony” on the web; provide examples and relate them to this part of the course (evolution).  


7. What laboratory research has been done to examine the spontaneous development of early life forms or life-related molecules?


8. How would you distinguish bryophytes from seedless vascular plants in their natural habitats?


9. Describe how the science of clasdistics is used to produce cladograms. 


10. What is plate tectonics and how does it relate to the earth’s land masses and the fossil record?


11. Contrast fertilization of female gametes in bryophytes, seedless vasculars, gymnosperms and angiosperms.


12. How does endosymbiotic evolution relate to organelles?


13.  What is a likely scenario for how the first plants arrived on land and were able to survive there?


14. Discuss how animals that have a notochord are chordates, but some of them are NOT vertebrates.


15. Examine the importance of jaws in fishes, as it related to evolution.


16. Describe segmentation in animals’ body plans. Which creatures show segmentation?


Biology homework help