1. Europe’s pioneer in the area of exploration was A) Spain …

Europe’s pioneer in the area of exploration was
A) Spain
B) Holland
C) Germany
D) Portugal

2. The greatest loss of life among the Indian population came from
warfare with the European invaders

3. The expansionist impulse of European monarchs in the latter fifteenth century was
A) temporarily subdued by the growth of Renaissance culture.
B) motivated by a desire to bypass Muslim merchants in trade with Asia and
C) nourished by population decline and civil disorder.
D) entirely unsuccessful

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4. In the latter half of the fifteenth century, Christopher Columbus
A) reaped significant fame and riches from his four voyages of exploration.
B) argued that Europeans could reach the Indies by sailing west rather than east.
C) received financial backing from Prince Henry the Navigator for a westward voyage.
D) overestimated the distance between Europe and Japan.

5. Spanish and Portuguese explorations of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries
A) helped soothe the Catholic-Protestant division within Christianity.
B) prompted immediate competition from England and France.
C) stimulated the growth of western European economies.
D shifted commercial power from Atlantic ports to those of the Mediterranean.

6. The population of the Americas dramatically declined following the arrival of Europeans
primarily because of the
A) policy of systematic genocide employed by European explorers toward Native
B) loss of morale and sense of hopelessness that pervaded Native American societies.
C) Lack of natural immunity among Native Americans to European diseases.
D) enslavement and brutal treatment of Native Americans by Europeans.

7. The massive flow of silver bullion from the Americas to Europe in the sixteenth and
seventeenth centuries
A) delayed further exploration of America.
B) further advanced the European economies into capitalism.
C) hampered capitalist modes of production.
D) increased prevailing wage rates in Europe.

8. The primary enterprise of the Portuguese in Brazil during the late sixteenth and early
seventeenth centuries involved the
A) production of sugar.
B) conversion of the natives to Catholicism.
C) enslavement of indigenous laborers.
D) extraction of silver.

9. English colonizing ventures in the New World differed from prior Spanish and Portuguese
efforts in that English attempts were
A) strictly coordinated and governed by the Crown.
B) Immediate and major successes.
C) privately organized and financed.
D) met with little or no native resistance.

10. A negative image of Native Americans among English settlers
A) explained for them the easy conquest of the natives by the Spanish.
B) resulted from their lack of information about indigenous peoples of the Americas.
C) spurred their desire to civilize and convert the natives to Christianity.
D) justified their claim that natives had disqualified themselves as rightful owners of the land.

11. “By the time the Spanish arrived in the 1540s, the indigenous Pueblo people were
using irrigation canals.” “Indigenous people” refers to those who
A) react against something unjust or unworthy.
B) live naturally in an area.
C) resist capture or control by others.
D) cleverly devise practical solutions.

12. The Virginia Company attracted new settlers to its colony after 1609 by
A) offering them a share of the company’s profits.
B) advertising the benefits of Virginia’s healthy environment and comfortable living conditions.
C) paying significantly higher wages than those prevailing throughout Europe.
D) promising free land at the end of seven years labor for the company.

13. The sustained economic salvation for the Virginia colony proved to be the
A)mining of silver.
B) invention of the cotton gin.
C) cultivation of tobacco.
D)trade with the Powhatan Indians.

14. The primary cause for continuing conflicts between English colonists and Native
Americans in Virginia was the
A) English murder of Nemattanew, a Powhatan war captain and religious prophet.
B) organization of Chesapeake tribes by the proud and talented leader Opechancanough.
C) refusal of Powhatan to allow his daughter Pocahontas to marry planter John Rolfe.
D) steady encroachment by land-hungry settlers on Indian territories.

15. Who were the largest class of laborers in British North America before 1670?
A) indentured servants
B) black slaves
C) Russian immigrants
D) white slaves

16. Which word or phrase best describes the status of black people in early Virginia?
A) set in stone
B) ambiguous
C) independent
D) completely subordinate

17. By about 1700, the British colonies had practically replaced indentured servitude with
black slavery. What factor(s) caused this to happen?
A) The British could look to their established precedent of slavery in the Caribbean as an

B) The British had gained control of the slave trade in Africa, and this caused the price
of slaves to go down.

C) Fewer indentured servants were willing to go to the Chesapeake.

D) All of these are correct.

18. How did British racism affect the nature of slavery in their colonies during the 1600s?

A) Laws were made, making penalties for blacks harsher than those for whites.

B) Black women were never assigned to do anything except the most routine house chores.

C) Laws in the early 1600s forced all blacks into slavery for life, allowing only whites to be indentured servants.

D) British racism had really not developed at this time. Racism only came about later, when slavery was well established.

19. How can historians see that blacks’ labor status evolved into a lifetime term, rather than
just the 5-7 years of a typical indentured servant?

A) Legal punishments for blacks, but not whites, could include life terms added to service.

B) Laws in Virginia and Maryland demonstrated that blacks could be held for life.

C) Prices for blacks became more expensive than whites.

D) All of these are correct.

20. What was characteristic of most slaves’ daily lives on plantations from 1700-1750?

A) Most slaves worked in the homes of their masters.

B) Most slaves worked seven days a week, without rest from dawn to dusk, and had other tasks at night to complete before sleeping.

C) Most slaves lived on small tracts of land and worked closely with their masters.

D) None of these are correct.

21. How would the British have described the race of a person who was part white and part
A) Anyone with black blood was automatically considered black, and therefore inferior.

B) The child was always considered the same race as the mother.

C) That person would be adopted into white society if his or her skin color was light enough.

D) All of these are correct.

22. In contrast to Virginia, the colony of Massachusetts Bay thrived almost from the
beginning because the early Puritan settlers
A) emigrated due to religious convictions rather than predatory instincts.
B) were less educated and thus less easily dissatisfied.
C) arrived as young, single, and healthy males unburdened by family commitments.
D) chose a location uninhabited by hostile Indians.

23. The Puritans of England
A) shunned the notions of social reform and missionary activity.
B) welcomed changes sparked by England’s accelerating commercial activity.
C) wished to rid the Church of England of all Catholic beliefs and practices.
D) loyally supported the rule of King Charles I.

24. Which of the following traits of American culture might be traced to the Puritans?
A) celebration of religious and cultural diversity.
B) belief in America’s special mission in the world.
C) individual freedom of thought and action.
D) separation of church and state.

25. Like their southern counterparts, the Puritans of New England failed to
A) build a sound economy.
B) create a tax-supported school system.
C) establish a successful government.
D) reach an accommodation with native Americans.

26. The distribution of land in the Puritan villages of Massachusetts Bay
A) challenged existing differences in wealth and status.
B) depended partly upon a man’s usefulness to the community.
C) created socialistic and egalitarian communities.
D) followed the dictates of the colony’s General Court.

27. Puritans decided to emigrate from England during the 1630s because of
A)political repression.
B) public degeneracy.
C) economic depression.
D) religious persecution.
E) All of the above.

28. The Sugar Act (1764) placed a duty, or tax, on
A) imported French molasses
B) domestic refined sugar
C) British molasses.
D) Canadian rum.

29. Europe’s most fiercely Catholic society as the sixteenth century began was Spain.

30. Which of the following statements about early Jamestown is most correct?
A) It was a great success.
B) It was saved by the discovery of silver.
C) It was a deathtrap.
D) It was a profitable venture for the London Company.

At first, men outnumbered women in Virginia and Maryland

The policy of mercantilism entails all of the following except that
A) colonies exist for the benefit of the mother country.
B) colonies should act as a source of raw materials for the mother country.
C) colonies should act as markets for the mother country.

D)colonies should develop manufacturing to export products to the mother country.

The Navigation Acts were tremendously successful and accomplished just what they were
designed to do

34. High literacy prevailed wherever slavery predominated.

The Great Awakening of the 1740s refers to

A) a massive religious revival.

B) the beginning of colonial strains with Great Britain.

C) the British attempt to implement imperial controls.

D) the rapid spread of disease in America.

36. What factor(s) had prevented the spread of Christianity among slaves prior to the
Great Awakening?
A) Masters feared that Christianity would bring ideas of freedom and equality to slaves.

B) Masters had prohibited slaves from converting to Christianity.

C) Africans continued to practice their own native religions.

D) All of these are correct.

37. Although the Great Awakening included elements of equality, some factors pushed
blacks to organize their own churches. Which was not one of those factors?
A) Black churchgoers wanted to continue some elements of African worship, like
dancing, shouting, clapping and singing that some denominations thought inappropriate.

B) Black members had to sit apart from white members in church services.

C) Black men were never allowed to hold leadership roles or become preachers in the

D) White masters emphasized elements of Christianity “appropriate” to slaves, like
obedience, and subservience.

38. Legally, in colonial America, women were considered equal to men.

39. Which one of the following was NOT a major problem facing the British at the end of
the French and Indian War?
A) French territorial holdings in North America
B) governing an enlarged colonial territory in North America
C) Indian uprisings on the North American frontier
D) a large national debt

40. The Seven Year’s War proved to be one of the bloodiest wars fought in the New World.

41. George Grenville, who became chief minister in Parliament in 1763,
A) was sympathetic toward American colonists.
B) was a close friend and favorite of George III.
C) was a devout mercantilist who insisted on strict enforcement of the Navigation Acts.
D) wanted to renew the traditional colonial policy of “salutary neglect.”

42. George Grenville’s program to raise revenue proposed that all imperial debts be paid
by the American colonists.

43. What was the primary purpose of the Proclamation of 1763?
A) to encourage rapid development of the Trans-Appalachian West
B) to help England avoid having to pay for costly Indian wars in the colonies
C) to promote the interests of private land companies in the colonies
D) to punish the colonists for their lack of cooperation during the French and Indian War

44. In 1763, the British Parliament made three pivotal policy decisions regarding the North
American colonies. These included all the following EXCEPT
A) garrisoning British regular troops in the North American frontier.
B) using British naval vessels to halt colonial smuggling and enforce the collection of
customs duties.
C) halting the colonists incursion into the trans-Appalachian West.
D) imposing direct taxes on the colonies to raise revenue to reduce England’s national

45. The Coercive Acts were implemented in response to the Boston Massacre.

46. Parliamentary restrictions passed after the Boston Tea Party were deemed “intolerable”
by Americans but justly “coercive” by most Englishmen.

47. The Stamp Act was the last in a series of direct taxes on the colonies.

48. When colonists protested the Stamp Tax with the cry “no taxation without
representation,” George Grenville argued that
A) each member of Parliament, regardless of his residence, represented all colonists in
the empire.
B) the colonists were adequately represented in their own colonial assemblies.
C) Parliament could tax the colonists even though they were not represented in the
House of Commons.
D) colonists, through their agents in London, were represented in Parliament.

49. Why did colonists oppose the Stamp Act?
A) It was an indirect or “hidden” tax.
B) It would hinder the highly profitable colonial trade with the West Indies.
C) Its revenues were to be used to pay off England’s own national debt.
D) They did not think Parliament had the constitutional authority to impose revenue taxes on them.

50. Economic difficulties in the 1760s and 1770s led craftsmen in Philadelphia to band
together within their craft and their community.

51. Actual fighting in the American Revolution began when the:
A) British army landed in New York.
B) British army, sent to seize colonial arms, was interrupted by colonists at Lexington.
C) British navy shelled the colonial port of Norfolk, Virginia.
D) colonial army under Washington forced the British to evacuate Boston.

52. George Washington’s early military setbacks convinced him to:
A) seek a final attempt at reconciliation with the British.
B) seek an alliance with the Spanish in Mexico.
C) engage the British in frontal combat.
D) harass the British, making the war as costly for them as possible.

53. Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense urged American colonists to:
A) consider carefully the tremendous obstacles of war.
B) pursue every avenue of possible compromise.
C) declare their independence from a tyrannical king.
D) remain loyal to the mother country.

54. As the Revolutionary War lengthened and its costs increased, which of the following
groups would have been LEAST likely to contribute soldiers for the cause?
A) recently arrived immigrants
B) artisans and farmers
C) men of wealth and influence
D) former indentured servants

55. “Employing what today would be called guerrilla tactics,” the American commander
harassed the British. Guerrilla tactics might be simply described as those of:
A) defensive retreat.
B) hit and run.
C) tactics based on the habits of animals.
D) reliance on overwhelming force.
E) head-on confrontation.

56. “Britain’s…mercenaries raised. . .fears particularly among the women.” Mercenaries
are soldiers:
A) having no mercy or pity.
B) lacking professional equipment or training.
C) who fight for the enemy.
D) hired for money from a foreign country.

57. Many American black slaves sought their freedom during the Revolution by:
A) attempting to take lands from western Indians.
B) fleeing to the maritime provinces of Canada.
C) fighting with the Americans.
D) fighting with the British.

58. The agricultural areas of the colonies formed the vital core of revolutionary agitation.

59. The peace treaty ending the war between Britain and America was the

A) Treaty of London.
B) Treaty of Paris.
C) Treaty of Lisbon.
D) Versailles Treaty.

60. The Northwest Ordinance (1787) prohibited slavery in the Northwest (Ohio) Territory.

61. With passage of the Alien and Sedition Acts it became obvious that the Federalists
equated preservation of their own political power with national security.

62. President George Washington thought the supposed threat of the Whiskey Rebellion
to his government was greatly exaggerated and refused to authorize a military force in

63. Short-staple cotton was hardy, but it became a popular crop only after

The cotton gin resulted in

A) the death of slavery
B) no noticeable increase in slavery.
C) the rejuvenation of slavery.
D) the extension of slavery to the North.

65. The task system encouraged slaves to work together.

66. Thomas Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans favored
A) promoting the revolutionary concepts of limited government.
B) establishing stronger ties with England instead of France.

C) the economic interests of merchants, bankers, and businessmen.

D) expanding the power of the national government.

67. The “War Hawks” were northeastern Federalists who opposed the War of 1812.

James Madison was president of the United States during the War of 1812.

69. The assimilationists cared deeply about the physical and spiritual fate of the Native
Americans as well as preservation of their cultural independence.

70. The doctrine of judicial review refers to the power of the Supreme Court to judge the


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